圣经问答:十诫(二)

HonorParents01 (180 x 141)出埃及记第十二课:十诫(二):出埃及记20章
摩西是圣经里的重要人物之一;“十诫”是中外历史中最有名的律法之一。也许以下的分析会让您认识摩西更深而明白“十诫”的意思和重要性。

一。出埃及记20:12-17:第五条至第十条诫命是人对人当负的责任。(头四个诫命是人对神所当负的责任。)

二。出埃及记20:12:第五条诫命:“当孝敬父母”。

肯定:父母及老人是人们当尊敬 的。家庭是社会最基本的单位;父母是家庭的基础。

否认和禁止:孩子们不可以违背父母;孩子不可以说父母不配获得孩子的尊敬。

命令:当孝敬、尊敬、顺服、奉养父母。

原则:(1)父母的权柄:在家里,父母为首。孩子如何孝敬顺服父母,家长要敬畏顺服天上的父神。父母从神授权管理家庭,所以父母都在神的“管理”之下。因此,父母应该达到神为家庭所立下的标准。父母要守道德使得孩子高高兴兴的尊敬他们。(2)政府的权柄:人们要尊重政府和法律。

应许:“使你的日子在耶和华你神所赐你的地上得以长久。”(新译本翻为:“使你在耶和华你的上帝赐给你的地上得享长寿”。)新约里的使徒保罗告诉我们说:“这是第一条带应许的诫命”(以弗所书6:2)。

圣经旧约孝道:请参看出埃及记21:15,17:“打父母的,必要把那人处死 . . . 咒骂父母的,必要把那人处死”。请参看:箴言15:5;30:17;6:20-23;23:22;利未记19:32。

今天:你如何把此诫命用在自己日常生活上?

三。出埃及记20:13:第六条诫命:“不可杀人”。

肯定:生命是神圣的。人要保护生命。

否认和禁止:谋杀。

命令:不可杀人。“杀人”的定义:(1)故意杀人(创世记4:8;申命记27:24)。(2)用代替者杀人(撒母尔记下11:14-15)。(3)送受贿赂杀人(申命记27:25)。(4)做假见证杀人(申命记19:16-19)。(5)因为忽略而使人死亡(出埃及记21:29;申命记22:8)。(6)自杀。

其他含意:(1)不可自行伸冤(意思是不要报仇:申命记32:35)。(2)不可过于危害他人生命。

不禁止:(1)极刑(创世记9:6)。(2)战争。(3)警察执行他的任务。(4)自卫(出埃及记22:2)。(5)意外杀人(申命记19:4-6)。

原则:生命是神圣的。

今天:你如何把此诫命用在自己日常生活上?

四。出埃及记20:14:第七条诫命:“不可奸淫”。

肯定:神设立家庭为一夫一妻。婚外性行为是罪。

否认和禁止:婚外性生活。

命令:婚前保持贞节;婚后保持忠心;一生保持圣洁。

原则:人的身体是神圣的。婚姻和家庭是神圣的。

五。出埃及记20:15:第八条诫命:“不可偷盗”。

肯定:“物”可以属于私人的;不许别人用任何不合理的手段夺取。

否认和禁止:(1)偷盗。(2)拒绝给所该给的。

命令:不可偷盗。偷盗的定义(包括但不限于以下的):(1)盗窃。(2)威吓(创世记25:31)。(3)赌博。(4)偷税、逃税。(5)偷懒(尤其在单位)。(6)作弊。(7)偷工减料。(8)偷情。(9)疏忽(因为疏忽而使他人受损:出埃及记22:14-15)。(10)虚伪的陈述(譬如,不准缺的广告或)。(11)欺骗(譬如,不标准的秤盘:申命记25:13-16)。(12)拒绝把所应该给神的拿给他(玛垃基书3:8-10)。等等。

原则:要看重私人之物。私人的东西都要属于私人。

今天:你如何把此诫命用在自己日常生活上?

六。出埃及记20:16:第九条诫命:“不可作假见证陷害人”。

肯定:要说实话。

否认和禁止:在公共场合,在法院,在私下,在任何地方不可以作假见证。

命令:不可作假见证陷害人。

如何违背此诫命?(1)撒谎(列王记上13:18-19)。(2)只说部分真理,使得听者有错误的印象(约书亚记9章;参看撒母耳记上20章)。(3)真假混合在一块(创世记20:1-13)。(4)提疑问(创世记3:1)。(5)捏造谣言(列王记上21:1-14)。(6)当别人说错话时,你知道实情,但你闭口不言(以斯帖记4:14)。(7)阿谀奉承,拍马屁。(士师记9:1-15;使徒行传12:19-23)。(8)先入为主地怀疑别人的动机(撒母耳记下10:1-4)。

除非在法庭,此诫命不坚决要求把某事情的全部真理讲出来(撒母耳记上16:1-3)。

原则:要尊重真理;真理是神圣的。

今天:你如何把此诫命用在自己日常生活上?

七。出埃及记20:17:第十条诫命:“不可贪恋”。(新译本:“不可贪爱你邻舍的房屋;不可贪爱你邻舍的妻子、仆婢、牛驴和他的任何东西”。)

肯定:培养内在美德,让内在美彰显在日常人与人之间的关系上(譬如:利未记19:9-18)。箴言4:23:“你要谨守你的心,胜过谨守一切,因为生命的泉源由此而出”。

否认和禁止:贪恋,嫉妒等。

命令:知足。保持好的态度。与快乐的人同乐。

原则:对他人并他们所拥有的,保持好态度。每个人内心要圣洁。

今天:你如何把此诫命用在自己日常生活上?


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圣经问答
出埃及记第十二课:十诫:出埃及记20章
Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Twelve
Exodus 20: The Ten Commandments /02
作者:谢德华 ©By Edward Short
本文所问的问题使用汉子圣经。
欢迎您把此文下载用在圣经班或私人学习。
A series of Bible lessons, written in Chinese
and based largely on the text of the Chinese Bible.
You may download and print copies of this lesson
for use in your Bible class.
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Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Twelve
Exodus 20: The Ten Commandments /02

1. Ex. 20:12-17: Commandments five through ten encompass responsibilities of man toward his fellow man. (The first four commandments deal with man’s responsibilities toward God.)

2. Ex. 20:12: The Fifth Commandment: “Honor your father and your mother.” Affirms: People should respect their parents and the elderly. The family is the basic unit of society; parents are the foundation of the family. Condemns and prohibits: Children must not disobey their parents; children cannot say that their parents are unworthy of their respect. Commands: Honor, respect, obey and (when they are old) care for parents. Principles: 1) Parental authority: Parents head the home. As children honor and obey their parents, so parents should honor and obey the Father in heaven. Parents receive authority to rule the home, thus parents are subject to God’s “rule.” Therefore, parents should live up to God’s standard for the home. Parents should live morally so that children will honor them happily. 2) Governmental authority: Respect government and law. Promise: “…so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.” [The New Chinese Translation is also quoted.] In the New Testament, the apostle Paul says that this is “the first commandment with a promise” (Eph. 6:2). Filial piety in the Old Testament: See Ex. 21:15, 17: “Anyone who attacks his father or mother must be put to death… Anyone who curses his father or mother must be put to death.” See also: Proverbs 15:5; 30:17; 6:20-23; 23:22; Leviticus 19:32.

3. Ex. 20:13: The Sixth Commandment: “You shall not kill.” Affirms: Life is sacred and should be protected. Condemns and prohibits: Murder. Commands: Do not kill people. Definition of “kill”: 1) Intentional murder (Gen. 4:8; Deut. 27:24). 2) Murder by proxy (2 Sam. 11:14-15). 3) Murder by bribery (Deut. 27:25). 4) Murder through false witness (Deut. 19:16-19). 5) Death due to neglect (Ex. 21:29; Deut. 22:8). 6. Suicide. Other implications: 1) Vengeance (Deut. 32:35). 2) Excessive endangerment of human life. Not prohibited: 1) Capital punishment (Gen. 9:6). 2) War. 3) Police duties. 4) Self-defense (Ex. 22:2). 5) Accidental killing (Deut. 19:4-6). zPrinciple: Life is sacred.

4. Ex. 20:14: The Seventh Commandment: “You shall not commit adultery.” Affirms: God established the home to have one husband and one wife. Sexual activity outside of marriage is sin. Condemns and prohibits: Sexual activity outside of marriage. Commands: Purity before marriage, loyalty after marriage, holiness throughout life. Principle: The human body is sacred. Marriage and the home is sacred.

5. Ex. 20:15: The Eighth Commandment: “You shall not steal.” Affirms: “Things” may be owned by individuals; other people may not use any type of inappropriate means to seize them. Condemns and prohibits: 1) Theft. 2) Refusal to give what should be given. Commands: Shall not steal. Definition of “steal” (includes but is not limited to): 1) Theft. 2) Coercion (Gen. 25:31). 3) Gambling. 4) Tax evasion. 5) Laziness (especially in employment). 6) Copying exams. 7) Shoddy construction. 8) Illicit love. 9) Neglect (property left in one’s care: Ex. 22:14-15). 10) False statement (e.g. false advertisement). 11) Cheating (e.g., inaccurate scales, Deut. 25:13-16). 12) Refusing to give to God that which he should receive (Malachi 3:8-10). Etc. Principal: Respect private property of others. Private property should belong to them.

6. Ex. 20:16: The Ninth Commandment: “You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.” Affirms: Tell the truth. Condemns and prohibits: In public settings, in court, in private, in any situation, one must not give false testimony. Commands: Must not give false testimony against one’s neighbor. How does one break this command? 1) By lying (1 Kings 13:18-19). 2) By telling only part of the truth and misleading the hearer (Joshua 9; cf. 1 Samuel 20). 3) By mixing truth with falsehood (Gen. 20:1-13). 4) By raising a question (Gen. 3:1). 5) By gossip (1 Kings 21:1-14). 6) By remaining silent when falsehood is being spoken and one knows the truth (Esther 4:14). 7) By flattery (Judges 9:1-15; Acts 12:19-23). 8) By judging one’s motives (2 Sam. 10:1-4). Unless in a court of law, this command does not obligate one to tell the entire truth about a given situation (1 Samuel 16:1-3). Principal: Respect truth; truth is sacred.

7. Ex. 20:17: The Tenth Commandment: “You shall not covet.” [The New Chinese Translation is also quoted, similar to the NIV]: “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.” Affirms: Develop an inner moral beauty which should be displayed in one’s daily life (e.g., Leviticus 19:9-18). Proverbs 4:23: “Above all else, guard your heart, for it is the wellspring of life.” Condemns and prohibits: Covetousness, jealousy, etc. Commands: Contentment, good attitude. Rejoice with those who rejoice. Principle: Have a good attitude toward others and their possessions. Holiness of the inner person.


本课之部分资料来自Thomas Warren博士。他是我研究所的伦理教授。Some of the material in this lesson is based on class notes I took when studying Ethics in graduate school under Dr. Thomas Warren. 我记得Warren博士时常提到The Master Bible。Dr. Warren made reference to The Master Bible which he seemed to like very much.

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