圣经问答:感恩(希伯来人写诗的方式)

Exodus15_13 (200 x 82)出埃及记第七课:感恩:出埃及记 15章
摩西是《圣经》里的重要人物之一。也许以下的问题会让您认识他更深。同时,此课会帮助您明白希伯来人如何写诗。

一。出埃及记15章:摩西的歌。此诗歌是摩西写的吧。主题是什么?

二。这首诗分为五个“节”(五个小段),如下:一)1-5; 二)6-8; 三)9-10; 四)11-12; 五)13-18。请列下每一“节”所描述的。第五个“节”(13-18)特别仰望什么时候,什么事情?

三。出埃及记15:22-25:希伯来人在摩西带领之下,过红海后向神感恩,我们不以为怪。使我们惊奇的是什么?人们很快就会___ ___神的恩惠。

四。我们应该为什么事情向神感恩?我们是否能够在三天内就忘记神的作为、大能、慈爱?

五。新约里面,哪个章节劝基督徒要感恩?基督徒感恩的基础是什么?

六。出埃及记15:1-18:摩西诗歌提到耶和华几次?提到神几次?摩西用什么形容词描绘神为人?(比方:6节:“手”;16节:“膀臂”等)。请列下其他的形容词。

七。出埃及记15:1-18是典型的希伯来人写的诗。下面是希伯来人写诗之写法的简介:

1) 希伯来人的诗相当于中国人的对联;《圣经》的学者把它称为“平行体”(Hebrew Parallelism)。恐怕摩西不知道“平行体”这个词,但是解经家Robert Lowth于1753年用“平行体”这个词描述希伯来人写诗的方式。如果我们理解“平行体”是什么,它会帮助我们懂得《圣经》内容,特别是用“诗”来写的那部分《圣经》。不少旧约内容是用诗写的。诗篇,箴言,传道书,以赛亚书,耶利米书,阿摩司书等小先知书都是“诗”或有部分是用“诗”写的。

2) “平行体”(Hebrew Parallelism)分为三种也就是三个主要的写法,如下:

1.“同义平行体” (Synonymous Parallelism):最普遍的平行体。前导和后导是同一个意思。后导重复前导。
2.组合平行体”(Progressive or Synthetic Parallelism):前导不完全,不单独存在;它需要后导补充。
3.“反义平行体”(Contrasting or Antithetic Parallelism):前导和后导是相对的意思。

八。请在出埃及记15:1-18找出两种平行体,如下:

1)15:4:前导:他把法老的马车和军兵都投在海里。后导:法老特选的官长都沉在红海中。第四节是___ ___平行体。
2)15:5:前导:波涛淹没了他们,后导:他们好象石头坠到深海。第五节是___ ___平行体。
3)15:6:前导:耶和华啊,你的右手满有荣耀和能力;后导:耶和华啊,你的右手击碎了仇敌第六节是___ ___平行体。
4)15:7:前导:你以莫大的威荣,毁灭了那些起来攻击你的人;后导:你发出烈怒,把他们烧灭象烧禾秸一样。第七节是___ ___平行体。
5)15:13:前导:你凭着慈爱,带领了你买赎的人民;后导:你凭着能力,引导了他们到你的圣所。第十三节是___ ____行体。
6)15:17:前导:你要把他们领进去,栽种在你产业的山上;后导第一部分: 耶和华啊,就是在你为自己预备的住处;后导第二部分:主啊,就是在你手建立的圣所上。第十七节是___ ___平行体。
7)出埃及记15:1-18:摩西没有用那种平行体?___ ___平行体。

九。出埃及记15:22-27:神答应以色列人什么事?此应许是否带着条件?什么动词最重要?___, ___, ___, ___ ___。(请背诵26节:如果你留意耶和华你上帝的声音,他眼中看为正的事,侧耳他的诫命,遵守他的一切律例;这样,我决不把加在埃及人身上的一切疾病加在你们身上,因为我是医治你的耶和华。)“埃及人身上的一切疾病”也许指十个灾难而言,其中的一个是他们的水是他们不能喝的。(注意:以色列人刚刚面对过此问题。)苦水变为好水(“甜水”)是个___迹 。目的是再次让以色列人得知及深信耶和华是可信___的神,让他们知道耶和华要保护他们。但,他们学得很慢!(我们是否学得比他们快?)


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Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Seven
Exodus 15: Thanksgiving
and  an Introduction to Hebrew Poetry

1.Ex. 15: The Song of Moses: We presume that this song was written by Moses. What is the theme?
2.This song has five sections or stanzas [See footnotes in the NIV Study Bible, s.v. Ex. 15]. Describe the content of each section as listed above. What time and event does the fifth section (v. 13-18) envision?
3.Ex. 15:22-25: We can understand the Hebrews thanking God after they crossed the Red Sea under Moses’ leadership, but what did they do that we do not understand? People quickly f______ God’s mercy.
4.For what things in our own lives should we be thankful? Can we forget God’s greatness, power and love in just three days?
5.What New Testament passages encourage Christians to give thanks? What is the foundation for Christian thanksgiving?
6.Ex. 15:1-8: How many times is the LORD (Jehovah) mentioned in the song?  How many times is God mentioned? What figures of speech does Moses use to describe God in terms of a man? (Exs.: v.6: hand; v.16: arm; etc.)
7.Ex. 15:1-18 is a typical example of the way Hebrews write poetry. Below is a very brief introduction to Hebrew poetry:
1) The way Hebrews write poetry is very similar to the way Chinese write “couplets” [such as are written on door frames at Lunar New Year]. Bible scholars call this form “Hebrew Parallelism.” Moses probably did not know the term “Hebrew Parallelism,” but Bible scholars use it to describe the way Hebrews wrote poetry. This term originated with Robert Lowth in 1753. Understanding “parallelism” helps us understand those parts of the Bible that are poetry, e.g., Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Amos, etc.
2) There are three basic types of Hebrew Parallelism:
1. Synonymous Parallelism: This is the most common form of Hebrew Parallelism. The first clause or line and the second mean the same thing; the second line repeats the first line.
2. Progressive or Synthetic Parallelism: The first line is incomplete and does not stand alone; the first line supplements the second line.
3. Contrasting or Antithetic Parallelism: The second clause (line or thought) gives an opposite meaning of the first line.
8. Look for examples of two types of parallelism in Ex. 15:1-18, below, and identify what type you think it is:
V. 4 A: Pharaoh’s chariots and his army he has hurled into the sea. B: The best of Pharaoh’s officers are drowned in the Red Sea.
V. 5 A: The deep waters have covered them; B: they sank to the depths like a stone.
V. 6 A: “Your right hand, O LORD, was majestic in power. B: Your right hand, O LORD, shattered the enemy.
V. 7 A: In the greatness of your majesty you threw down those who opposed you. B: You unleashed your burning anger; it consumed them like stubble.
V. 13 A: “In your unfailing love you will lead the people you have redeemed. B: In your strength you will guide them to your holy dwelling.
V. 17 A: You will bring them in and plant them on the mountain of your inheritance–the place, B’: O LORD, you made for your dwelling, the sanctuary, B’’: O Lord, your hands established. Look for two types of parallelism in Ex. 15:1-18.
Each verse listed above is divided into lines or clauses. Write the type of parallelism seen in that verse.
Question 7) asks: Which type of parallelism is not found in Ex. 15:1-18?
9.Ex. 15:22-27: What did God promise the Israelites? Was this promise conditional? What verbs represent the condition? Memorize Ex. 15:26. [Ex. 15:26 is printed and the appropriate verbs are highlighted.] The phrase, “…any of the diseases… [of] the Egyptians” probably refers to the Ten Plagues, one of which was that their water was unfit to drink (the problem which the Israelites just faced). [Woods, s.v. Ex. 15:26.] Bitter water was made good (“sweet”) because of a m______. The miracle was once again to make the Israelites know and believe deeply that the Lord is ________ and that he would protect them. However they sure learned slowly! (Are we better students than they?)


圣经问答
出埃及记第七课:感恩:出埃及记 15章
Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Seven
Exodus 15: Thanksgiving
and  an Introduction to Hebrew Poetry
作者:谢德华 ©By Edward Short
本文所问的问题使用汉子圣经。
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