聖經問答:感恩(希伯來人寫詩的方式)

Exodus15_13 (200 x 82)出埃及記第七課:感恩:出埃及記 15章
摩西是《聖經》里的重要人物之一。也許以下的問題會讓您認識他更深。同時,此課會幫助您明白希伯來人如何寫詩。

一。出埃及記15章:摩西的歌。此詩歌是摩西寫的吧。主題是什麼?

二。這首詩分為五個“節”(五個小段),如下:一)1-5; 二)6-8; 三)9-10; 四)11-12; 五)13-18。請列下每一“節”所描述的。第五個“節”(13-18)特別仰望什麼時候,什麼事情?

三。出埃及記15:22-25:希伯來人在摩西帶領之下,過紅海後向神感恩,我們不以為怪。使我們驚奇的是什麼?人們很快就會___ ___神的恩惠。

四。我們應該為什麼事情向神感恩?我們是否能夠在三天內就忘記神的作為、大能、慈愛?

五。新約裡面,哪個章節勸基督徒要感恩?基督徒感恩的基礎是什麼?

六。出埃及記15:1-18:摩西詩歌提到耶和華幾次?提到神幾次?摩西用什麼形容詞描繪神為人?(比方:6節:“手”;16節:“膀臂”等)。請列下其他的形容詞。

七。出埃及記15:1-18是典型的希伯來人寫的詩。下面是希伯來人寫詩之寫法的簡介:

1) 希伯來人的詩相當於中國人的對聯;《聖經》的學者把它稱為“平行體”(Hebrew Parallelism)。恐怕摩西不知道“平行體”這個詞,但是解經家Robert Lowth於1753年用“平行體”這個詞描述希伯來人寫詩的方式。如果我們理解“平行體”是什麼,它會幫助我們懂得《聖經》內容,特別是用“詩”來寫的那部分《聖經》。不少舊約內容是用詩寫的。詩篇,箴言,傳道書,以賽亞書,耶利米書,阿摩司書等小先知書都是“詩”或有部分是用“詩”寫的。

2) “平行體”(Hebrew Parallelism)分為三種也就是三個主要的寫法,如下:

1.“同義平行體” (Synonymous Parallelism):最普遍的平行體。前導和後導是同一個意思。後導重複前導。
2.組合平行體”(Progressive or Synthetic Parallelism):前導不完全,不單獨存在;它需要後導補充。
3.“反義平行體”(Contrasting or Antithetic Parallelism):前導和後導是相對的意思。

八。請在出埃及記15:1-18找出兩種平行體,如下:

1)15:4:前導:他把法老的馬車和軍兵都投在海里。後導:法老特選的官長都沉在紅海中。第四節是___ ___平行體。
2)15:5:前導:波濤淹沒了他們,後導:他們好象石頭墜到深海。第五節是___ ___平行體。
3)15:6:前導:耶和華啊,你的右手滿有榮耀和能力;後導:耶和華啊,你的右手擊碎了仇敵第六節是___ ___平行體。
4)15:7:前導:你以莫大的威榮,毀滅了那些起來攻擊你的人;後導:你發出烈怒,把他們燒滅象燒禾秸一樣。第七節是___ ___平行體。
5)15:13:前導:你憑着慈愛,帶領了你買贖的人民;後導:你憑着能力,引導了他們到你的聖所。第十三節是___ ____行體。
6)15:17:前導:你要把他們領進去,栽種在你產業的山上;後導第一部分: 耶和華啊,就是在你為自己預備的住處;後導第二部分:主啊,就是在你手建立的聖所上。第十七節是___ ___平行體。
7)出埃及記15:1-18:摩西沒有用那種平行體?___ ___平行體。

九。出埃及記15:22-27:神答應以色列人什麼事?此應許是否帶着條件?什麼動詞最重要?___, ___, ___, ___ ___。(請背誦26節:如果你留意耶和華你上帝的聲音,他眼中看為正的事,側耳他的誡命,遵守他的一切律例;這樣,我決不把加在埃及人身上的一切疾病加在你們身上,因為我是醫治你的耶和華。)“埃及人身上的一切疾病”也許指十個災難而言,其中的一個是他們的水是他們不能喝的。(注意:以色列人剛剛面對過此問題。)苦水變為好水(“甜水”)是個___跡 。目的是再次讓以色列人得知及深信耶和華是可信___的神,讓他們知道耶和華要保護他們。但,他們學得很慢!(我們是否學得比他們快?)


讀者:歡迎您把這篇短文下載,複印,用在您的《聖經》班裡。


Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Seven
Exodus 15: Thanksgiving
and  an Introduction to Hebrew Poetry

1.Ex. 15: The Song of Moses: We presume that this song was written by Moses. What is the theme?
2.This song has five sections or stanzas [See footnotes in the NIV Study Bible, s.v. Ex. 15]. Describe the content of each section as listed above. What time and event does the fifth section (v. 13-18) envision?
3.Ex. 15:22-25: We can understand the Hebrews thanking God after they crossed the Red Sea under Moses’ leadership, but what did they do that we do not understand? People quickly f______ God’s mercy.
4.For what things in our own lives should we be thankful? Can we forget God’s greatness, power and love in just three days?
5.What New Testament passages encourage Christians to give thanks? What is the foundation for Christian thanksgiving?
6.Ex. 15:1-8: How many times is the LORD (Jehovah) mentioned in the song?  How many times is God mentioned? What figures of speech does Moses use to describe God in terms of a man? (Exs.: v.6: hand; v.16: arm; etc.)
7.Ex. 15:1-18 is a typical example of the way Hebrews write poetry. Below is a very brief introduction to Hebrew poetry:
1) The way Hebrews write poetry is very similar to the way Chinese write “couplets” [such as are written on door frames at Lunar New Year]. Bible scholars call this form “Hebrew Parallelism.” Moses probably did not know the term “Hebrew Parallelism,” but Bible scholars use it to describe the way Hebrews wrote poetry. This term originated with Robert Lowth in 1753. Understanding “parallelism” helps us understand those parts of the Bible that are poetry, e.g., Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Amos, etc.
2) There are three basic types of Hebrew Parallelism:
1. Synonymous Parallelism: This is the most common form of Hebrew Parallelism. The first clause or line and the second mean the same thing; the second line repeats the first line.
2. Progressive or Synthetic Parallelism: The first line is incomplete and does not stand alone; the first line supplements the second line.
3. Contrasting or Antithetic Parallelism: The second clause (line or thought) gives an opposite meaning of the first line.
8. Look for examples of two types of parallelism in Ex. 15:1-18, below, and identify what type you think it is:
V. 4 A: Pharaoh’s chariots and his army he has hurled into the sea. B: The best of Pharaoh’s officers are drowned in the Red Sea.
V. 5 A: The deep waters have covered them; B: they sank to the depths like a stone.
V. 6 A: “Your right hand, O LORD, was majestic in power. B: Your right hand, O LORD, shattered the enemy.
V. 7 A: In the greatness of your majesty you threw down those who opposed you. B: You unleashed your burning anger; it consumed them like stubble.
V. 13 A: “In your unfailing love you will lead the people you have redeemed. B: In your strength you will guide them to your holy dwelling.
V. 17 A: You will bring them in and plant them on the mountain of your inheritance–the place, B’: O LORD, you made for your dwelling, the sanctuary, B’’: O Lord, your hands established. Look for two types of parallelism in Ex. 15:1-18.
Each verse listed above is divided into lines or clauses. Write the type of parallelism seen in that verse.
Question 7) asks: Which type of parallelism is not found in Ex. 15:1-18?
9.Ex. 15:22-27: What did God promise the Israelites? Was this promise conditional? What verbs represent the condition? Memorize Ex. 15:26. [Ex. 15:26 is printed and the appropriate verbs are highlighted.] The phrase, “…any of the diseases… [of] the Egyptians” probably refers to the Ten Plagues, one of which was that their water was unfit to drink (the problem which the Israelites just faced). [Woods, s.v. Ex. 15:26.] Bitter water was made good (“sweet”) because of a m______. The miracle was once again to make the Israelites know and believe deeply that the Lord is ________ and that he would protect them. However they sure learned slowly! (Are we better students than they?)


聖經問答
出埃及記第七課:感恩:出埃及記 15章
Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Seven
Exodus 15: Thanksgiving
and  an Introduction to Hebrew Poetry
作者:謝德華 ©By Edward Short
本文所問的問題使用漢子聖經。
歡迎您把此文下載用在聖經班或私人學習。
A series of Bible lessons, written in Chinese
and based largely on the text of the Chinese Bible.
You may download and print copies of this lesson
for use in your Bible class.
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