聖經問答:神與以色列人立約

GodCovenantIsr01 (150 x 68)出埃及記第十課:神與以色列人立約:出埃及記 19章
摩西是《聖經》里的重要人物之一。也許以下的問題會讓您認識他更深。

一。出埃及記19章是出埃及記里非常重要的部分之一;這章節記載神邀請以色列人來與他立約。以色列的長老代表全國全民,接受神的邀請。

二。出埃及記19:1-2:以色列人離開了埃及已經有多久?他們在哪裡?

三。出埃及記19:3-6:神提供(offer)與以色列人與他立“約”。

四。出埃及記19:3:摩西去哪裡與神相會?請注意!神告訴摩西的話(第3節)相當於第15章的“同義平行體”:上半句和下半句都是一個意思:前導:“你要這樣告訴雅各家”;後導:“曉諭以色列人”。“告訴”和“曉諭”是一個意思;“雅各家”和“以色列人”也是一樣意思。

五。出埃及記19:4:“約”的基礎:在短短的一句話里,神描述他為以色列人所作的:“我向埃及人所行的事,你們都看見了,且看見我如___將你們背在___ ___上,帶來歸___”。在這句話里,哪個字最重要?(出現三次。)以色列人不應該忘記是___把他們接到他的懷抱來。神為以色列人成就了什麼大事?(1)把他們從埃及吃苦之地拯___出來;(2)從萬國之中把他們分___出來,成為自己的子民。(請背誦第四節。)請把第四節應用在今日基督徒的身上。

六。出埃及記19:5-6:“約”的條件和應許:因為神出面邀請以色列人與他簽“約”,而且,神已經為以色列人成就大事,所以神有資格提出“約”的條___。這位偉大的神也有權柄賞賜以色列人(賜給他們應___)。第一個條件是:“你們若是實在聽我的___,___ ___我的約”。第一個應許是:“你們就必在萬民中作屬我的___ ___…”。還有一句話,可以形容為“約”的條件、應許、目標、目的和結果:“你們要___我作___ ___的國度,為____ ____的國民”。請參看新約彼得前書2:5,9之後,把出埃及記19:5應用在今日基督徒的身上。

七。出埃及記19:7-8:以色列人接受此“約”:誰代表群眾?“百姓都同聲回答說:‘凡耶和華所___的,我們都要___ ___’”。之後,摩西“就將百姓的話回復耶和華”。以此句話,以色列人就接受了神的邀請,他們接受了此“約” ;他們接受了“約”的條件、規定、條例,命令等。以色列人與神立了“約”;他們簽了名、蓋了章。

八。出埃及記19:9:神肯定摩西為領袖,為發言人,為中間人:耶和華對摩西說:“我要在密雲中臨到你那裡,叫百姓在我與你說話的時候可以聽見,也可以永遠信你了”。希伯來原文強調“永遠信你了”的“你”字。神為什麼要高舉摩西在以色列人面前?如果群眾不尊重摩西,他們會尊重摩西將要代表神所說的話和誡命嗎?

九。出埃及記19:10-15:請述說希伯來人要守哪些規定“自潔”(10節)。(新譯本翻為:“分別為聖”;普通話本翻為:“潔凈自己”。)為什麼那時候“不可親近女人”?不是因為性交是個罪,也不是因為性行為本身不聖潔。在《聖經》里,性是神創造的,所以婚內的性交是神聖的,是好的。但是性交會使得以色列人,在禮儀上,“不潔凈”。

十。出埃及記19:16-23:請描繪當時所發生的。 參看申命記4:11-12以及希伯來書12:18-21。所發生的並不是一般的地震;乃是“神降臨”的現象。為什麼“營中的人民都顫抖” (16節)?摩西自己怎麼樣(希伯來書12:18-21)?此現象是聖潔的神親近不潔的人,是無罪的上帝接近有罪的人。

十一。出埃及記19:21-24:神為什麼說:“恐怕他們有多人死亡”和“恐怕我忽然出來擊殺他們”?也許神指的不是第12-13節的懲罰而言(人要懲罰人)。乃是說,如果有罪的人太親近至聖的神,他就會死,或者神要懲罰他(神懲罰人)。請參看撒母耳記上6:19和撒母耳記下6:6-7。從此我們可知,神是聖潔的和神聖的。在今天的社會上,老百姓可不可以隨便親近總統?如果我們隨便親近或摸總統,安全警察馬上會怎麼樣?在神的面前,總統跟我們一樣,只不過是個罪人。但是,如果我們連總統都不可以隨便接近,何況接近神呢?


讀者:歡迎您把這篇短文下載,複印,用在您的《聖經》班裡。


Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Ten
Exodus 19: God Makes a Covenant with Israel

1. Exodus ch. 19 is a very important section of the book of Exodus; it records God’s invitation to Israel to enter into covenant with him.

2. Ex. 19:1-2: How long have the Israelites been gone from Egypt? Where are they at this time?

3. Ex. 19:3-6: God offers the covenant to Israel.

4. Ex. 19:3: Where did Moses go to meet with God? Note: What God told Moses (v. 3) is very much like the “Hebrew parallelism” of Ex. 15: The first half of the statement and the second half mean the same thing: A: “This is what you are to say to the house of Jacob;” B: “what you are to tell the people of Israel.” “Say” and “tell” are equivalent; “house of Jacob” and “people of Israel” are equivalent.

5. Ex. 19:4: The Foundation of the Covenant: In one brief sentence, God describes what he did for the Israelites: “You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on e_____ w____ and brought you to m_____”. What is the most important word in this sentence? (Mentioned three times in one form or another.) The Israelites must not forget that it was G___ who brought them to his chest. What great deeds did God do for Israel? (1) S_____ them from cruel bondage in Egypt; (2) Sep______ them from among all the nations to become his own people. (Please memorize v. 4.) Explain how verse 4 applies to Christians today.

6. Ex. 19:5-6: Conditions and Promises of the Covenant: Since God stepped forward and invited the Israelites to enter into “covenant” with him, and because God did great deeds for the Israelites, therefore God is qualified to set down the cond______ of the covenant. This great God also has the authority to reward the Israelites (to make them pr_______). The first condition is: “Now if you o___ me fully and k____ my covenant.” The first promise is: “then out of all nations you will be my treasured p_______.” There is yet another statement which may be seen as a condition, a promise, a standard, a purpose and a result of the covenant: “you w___ __ for me a kingdom of p_____ and a h____ nation.” Read 1 Peter 2:5, 9 and then apply Ex. 19:5 to Christians today.

7. Ex. 19:7-8: The Israelites Accept the Covenant: Who represented the community? “The people all responded together, “We will d___ everything the LORD has s____.” Then, “Moses brought their answer back to the LORD.” With this statement, the Israelites accepted God’s invitation and they accepted the covenant; they accepted all the conditions, rules, regulations and commandments of the covenant. The Israelites made a covenant with God; they signed their names and chopped it with their stamp.

8. Ex. 19:9: God affirmed Moses as leader, as his spokesman and as the mediator: God told Moses: “I am going to come to you in a dense cloud, so that the people will hear me speaking with you and will always put their trust in you.” In the original Hebrew, the “you” in “put their trust in you” is emphatic [Woods, s.v. Ex. 19:9]. Why would God exalt Moses in the eyes of the Israelites? If the community did not respect Moses, would they respect the words that Moses was about to speak as God’s representative?

9. Ex. 19:10-15: Describe what regulations the Hebrews were to observe in order to “cleanse or purify themselves” [Chinese Union version] (v 10). (The New Chinese version: “set apart”; the Easy-to-Read Chinese version: “cleanse or purify themselves.”) Why were they told “Do not go near a woman”? This was not because sexual intercourse was a sin and not because sexual activity was unholy and impure within itself. In the Bible, sex is God’s creation, so sexual union within marriage is holy and good. However sexual intercourse would render an Israelite ceremonially “unclean.”

10. Ex. 19:16-23: Describe everything that happened. See also Deuteronomy 4:11-112; Hebrews 12:18-21. This is not an ordinary earthquake; rather is an epiphany ( a manifestation of God). Why did everyone in the camp tremble (v. 16)? What did Moses himself do (Hebrews 12:18-21)? This phenomenon was [what happens when] a holy God comes close to impure people, when a sinless God contacts sinful humanity.

11. Ex. 19:21-24: Why did God say, “and many of them perish” and “the LORD will break out against them”? Perhaps God is not referring to the punishment of vs. 12-13 (man punishing man). Rather God is saying that if a sinful human gets too close to the holy God, he will die, or that God would punish him (God punishing man). See 1 Samuel 6:19 and 2 Samuel 6:6-7. From this we know that God is pure and holy. In today’s society, may citizens freely get close to the president? If we get too close to the president or touch him, what will security personnel quickly do? (In God’s sight, a president after all is only a sinner like the rest of us.) If we cannot even freely approach the president, then what about approaching God?


聖經問答
出埃及記第十課:神與以色列人立約:出埃及記 19章
Bible Study Questions: Exodus Lesson Ten
Exodus 19: God Makes a Covenant with Israel
作者:謝德華 ©By Edward Short
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